Hukum Menghadiahkan al-Fatihah Kepada Orang yang Telah Meninggal Menurut 4 Madzhab

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Trading is an active style of participating in the financial markets that seeks to outperform traditional buy-and-hold investing. Rather than trying to profit from long-term uptrends in the markets, traders look for short-term price moves to profit in both rising and falling markets.As a trader, one of the most important things you can do to improve your chances of success is to approach trading as a business. A successful trading business requires a strategic plan that covers your actual business and your actual trading. Your business plan will include things like short and long-term goals, the amount of capital you have available for the business and how you will set up your office. Your trading plan includes the details of trading: what you will trade and how you will trade it. Your plan should be so objective and concise that you could hand it over to another trader and they would be able to execute it exactly.It’s important to understand that your trading plan is not simply a set of rules that you think will work, a list of set-ups that you are somehow fond of, or someone else’s plan. A good trading plan is one that you have researched, tested on historical data, tested in a live market and continue to evaluate at regular intervals.Successful trading involves more than reading a few articles or books, and you should plan on devoting a substantial amount of time and effort before ever placing a trade in a live market. This can be difficult because most new traders are anxious to get in the market. While the research and time commitments may sound daunting, they're a realistic and integral part of becoming a profitable, independent trader.This tutorial serves as an introduction to help you get started trading. For more information, be sure to check out part two of our series, which covers more advanced topics including charting, leverage, risk and strategy automation. Many people who become interested in trading are first introduced to the financial markets through investing.The purpose of investing is to build wealth slowly over time, and this is typically accomplished through a buy-and-hold approach: making investments – such as in a stock, ETF or mutual fund – and allowing price to fluctuate over time. Investors “ride out” the inevitable downtrends with the expectation that prices will eventually rebound and rise over the long-term.After years or decades, the investment will, in many cases, increase in value and provide positive returns for the investor. Long-term returns can be further amplified by compounding through the reinvestment of profits and dividends. Investments are often viewed as a means of building wealth to provide stability and income during the retirement years.While investments are typically held for a period of years or even decades, traders buy and sell stocks, commodities, currency pairs and various other investment vehicles with the intention of generating returns that outperform a buy-and-hold strategy. Trading profits are viewed as income since profits are “taken off the table” on a regular basis (as opposed to investing, where positions are generally left alone for the long haul).Trading profits are achieved through buying low and selling high – and selling high and buying (to cover) low, in the case of short selling – and all trades are entered and exited within a relatively short period of time. This time period can vary from a few seconds to months or even years, depending on the trader’s style. The following chart lists the four primary trading styles - position, swing, day and scalp – with the corresponding time frames and holding periods for each.
Trading is an active style of participating in the financial markets that seeks to outperform traditional buy-and-hold investing. Rather than trying to profit from long-term uptrends in the markets, traders look for short-term price moves to profit in both rising and falling markets.As a trader, one of the most important things you can do to improve your chances of success is to approach trading as a business. A successful trading business requires a strategic plan that covers your actual business and your actual trading. Your business plan will include things like short and long-term goals, the amount of capital you have available for the business and how you will set up your office. Your trading plan includes the details of trading: what you will trade and how you will trade it. Your plan should be so objective and concise that you could hand it over to another trader and they would be able to execute it exactly.It’s important to understand that your trading plan is not simply a set of rules that you think will work, a list of set-ups that you are somehow fond of, or someone else’s plan. A good trading plan is one that you have researched, tested on historical data, tested in a live market and continue to evaluate at regular intervals.Successful trading involves more than reading a few articles or books, and you should plan on devoting a substantial amount of time and effort before ever placing a trade in a live market. This can be difficult because most new traders are anxious to get in the market. While the research and time commitments may sound daunting, they're a realistic and integral part of becoming a profitable, independent trader.This tutorial serves as an introduction to help you get started trading. For more information, be sure to check out part two of our series, which covers more advanced topics including charting, leverage, risk and strategy automation. Many people who become interested in trading are first introduced to the financial markets through investing.The purpose of investing is to build wealth slowly over time, and this is typically accomplished through a buy-and-hold approach: making investments – such as in a stock, ETF or mutual fund – and allowing price to fluctuate over time. Investors “ride out” the inevitable downtrends with the expectation that prices will eventually rebound and rise over the long-term.After years or decades, the investment will, in many cases, increase in value and provide positive returns for the investor. Long-term returns can be further amplified by compounding through the reinvestment of profits and dividends. Investments are often viewed as a means of building wealth to provide stability and income during the retirement years.While investments are typically held for a period of years or even decades, traders buy and sell stocks, commodities, currency pairs and various other investment vehicles with the intention of generating returns that outperform a buy-and-hold strategy. Trading profits are viewed as income since profits are “taken off the table” on a regular basis (as opposed to investing, where positions are generally left alone for the long haul).Trading profits are achieved through buying low and selling high – and selling high and buying (to cover) low, in the case of short selling – and all trades are entered and exited within a relatively short period of time. This time period can vary from a few seconds to months or even years, depending on the trader’s style. The following chart lists the four primary trading styles - position, swing, day and scalp – with the corresponding time frames and holding periods for each.

Pertanyaan:
Apa hukum menghadiahkan bacaan al-Fatihah kepada mayit? Apakah pahalanya sampai?

Jawaban:
Sebelumnya kita perlu memahami bahwa ditinjau dari bentuk pengorbanan hamba, ibadah dibagi menjadi 3,

Pertama, ibadah murni badaniyah, itulah semua ibadah yang modal utamanya gerakan fisik. Seperti shalat, puasa, dzikir, adzan, membaca al-Quran, dst.

Kedua, ibadah murni maliyah. Semua ibadah yang pengorbanan utamanya harta. Seperti zakat, infaq, sedekah, dst.

Ketiga, ibadah badaniyah maliyah. Gabungan antara ibadah fisik dan harta sebagai pendukung utamanya. Seperti jihad, haji atau umrah.

Ulama sepakat bahwa semua ibadah yang bisa diwakilkan, seperti ibadah maliyah atau yang dominan maliyah, seperti sedekah, atau haji, atau ibadah yang ditegaskan bisa diwakilkan, seperti puasa, maka semua bisa dihadiahkan kepada mayit.

Imam Zakariya al-Anshari mengatakan,

وينفعه أي الميت من وارث وغيره صدقة ودعاء، بالإجماع وغيره

Sedekah atau doa baik dari ahli waris maupun yang lainnya, bisa bermanfaat bagi mayit dengan sepakat ulama. (Fathul Wahhab, 2/31).

Keterangan lain disampaikan Ibnu Qudamah,

أما الدعاء والاستغفار والصدقة وقضاء الدين وأداء الواجبات فلا نعلم فيه خلافاً إذا كانت الواجبات مما يدخله النيابة

Doa, istighfar, sedekah, melunasi utang, menunaikan kewajiban (yang belum terlaksana), bisa sampai kepada mayit. Kami tidak tahu adanya perbedaan pendapat di kalangan ulama, apabila kewajiban itu bisa diwakilkan. (as-Syarhul Kabir, 2/425).

Sementara itu, ulama berbeda pendapat untuk hukum mengirim pahala ibadah yang tidak bisa diwakilkan kepada mayit, seperti bacaan al-Quran. Kita akan sebutkan secara ringkas,

Pertama, madzhab hanafi

Ulama hanafiyah menegaskan bahwa mengirim pahala bacaan al-Quran kepada mayit hukum dibolehkan. Pahalanya sampai kepada mayit, dan bisa bermanfaat bagi mayit. Dalam

Imam Ibnu Abil Izz – ulama Hanafiyah – menuliskan,

إن الثواب حق العامل، فإذا وهبه لأخيه المسلم لم يمنع من ذلك، كما لم يمنع من هبة ماله له في حياته، وإبرائه له منه بعد وفاته. وقد نبه الشارع بوصول ثواب الصوم على وصول ثواب القراءة ونحوها من العبادات البدنية

Sesungguhnya pahala adalah hak orang yang beramal. Ketika dia hibahkan pahala itu kepada saudaranya sesama muslim, tidak jadi masalah. Sebagaimana dia boleh menghibahkan hartanya kepada orang lain ketika masih hidup. Atau membebaskan tanggungan temannya muslim, yang telah meninggal.

Syariat telah menjelaskan pahala puasa bisa sampai kepada mayit, yang itu mengisyaratkan sampainya pahala bacaan al-Quran, atau ibadah badaniyah lainnya. (Syarh Aqidah Thahawiyah, 1/300).

Kedua, madzhab Malikiyah

Imam Malik menegaskan, bahwa menghadiahkan pahala amal kepada mayit hukumnya dilarang dan pahalanya tidak sampai, dan tidak bermanfaat bagi mayit. Sementara sebagian ulama malikiyah membolehkan dan pahalanya bisa bermanfaat bagi mayit.

Dalam Minah al-Jalil, al-Qarrafi membagi ibadah menjadi tiga,

  1. Ibadah yang pahala dan manfaatnya dibatasi oleh Allah, hanya berlaku untuk pemiliknya. Dan Allah tidak menjadikannya bisa dipindahkan atau dihadiahkan kepada orang lain. Seperti iman, atau tauhid.
  2. Ibadah yang disepakati ulama, pahalanya bisa dipindahkan dan dihadiahkan kepada orang lain, seperti ibadah maliyah.
  3. Ibadah yang diperselisihkan ulama, apakah pahalanya bisa dihadiahkan kepada mayit ataukan tidak? Seperti bacaa al-Quran. Imam Malik dan Imam Syafii melarangnya. (Minan al-Jalil, 1/509).

Selanjutnya al-Qarrafi menyebutkan dirinya lebih menguatkan pendapat yang membolehkan. Beliau menyatakan,

فينبغي للإنسان أن لا يتركه، فلعل الحق هو الوصول، فإنه مغيب

Selayaknya orang tidak meninggalkannya. Bisa jadi yang benar, pahala itu sampai. Karena ini masalah ghaib. (Minan al-Jalil, 7/499).

Ada juga ulama malikiyah yang berpendapat bahwa menghadiahkan pahala bacaan al-Quran  tidak sampai kepada mayit. Hanya saja, ketika yang hidup membaca al-Quran di dekat mayit atau di kuburan, maka mayit  mendapatkan pahala mendengarkan bacaan al-Quran. Namun pendapat ini ditolak al-Qarrafi karena mayit tidak bisa lagi beramal. Karena kesempatan beramal telah putus (Inqitha’ at-Taklif).  (Minan al-Jalil, 1/510).

Ketiga, Pendapat Syafiiyah

Pendapat yang masyhur dari Imam as-Syafii bahwa beliau melarang menghadiahkan bacaan al-Quran kepada mayit dan itu tidak sampai.

An-Nawawi mengatakan,

وأما قراءة القرآن، فالمشهور من مذهب الشافعي، أنه لا يصل ثوابها إلى الميت، وقال بعض أصحابه: يصل ثوابها إلى الميت

Untuk bacaan al-Quran, pendapat yang masyhur dalam madzhab as-Syafii, bahw aitu tidak sampai pahalanya kepada mayit. Sementara sebagian ulama syafiiyah mengatakan, pahalanya sampai kepada mayit. (Syarh Shahih Muslim, 1/90).

Salah satu ulama syafiiyah yang sangat tegas menyatakan bahwa itu tidak sampai adalah al-Hafidz Ibnu Katsir, penulis kitab tafsir.